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Version: 17.10e (Release date: 2017-10-30)
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Metformin Hydrochloride (Code C29251)

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Terms & Properties

Preferred Name: Metformin Hydrochloride

Definition: The hydrochloride salt of the biguanide metformin with antihyperglycemic and potential antineoplastic activities. Metformin inhibits complex I (NADPH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby increasing the cellular AMP to ATP ratio and leading to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and regulating AMPK-mediated transcription of target genes. This eventually prevents hepatic gluconeogenesis, enhances insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation and ultimately leads to a decrease in glucose levels. Metformin may exert antineoplastic effects through AMPK-mediated or AMPK-independent inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is up-regulated in many cancer tissues. Furthermore, this agent also inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression which is mediated through the suppression of transcription activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation.

NCI-GLOSS Definition: A drug used to treat diabetes mellitus (a condition in which the body cannot control the level of sugar in the blood). It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. It decreases the amount of glucose (a type of sugar) released into the bloodstream from the liver and increases the body's use of the glucose. Glucophage is a type of antidiabetic agent.

Display Name: Metformin Hydrochloride

Label: Metformin Hydrochloride

NCI Thesaurus Code: C29251 (Search for linked caDSR metadata)  (search value sets)

NCI Metathesaurus Link: C0770893  (see NCI Metathesaurus info)

Synonyms & Abbreviations: (see Synonym Details)
1,1-Dimethylbiguanide Hydrochloride
Glucophage ER
Metformin HCl
Metformin Hydrochloride
metformin hydrochloride
N,N-Dimethylimidodicarbonimidic Diamide Monohydrochloride

External Source Codes: 
CAS Registry Number 1115-70-4 (see NLM ChemIDplus info)
FDA UNII Code 786Z46389E
NSC Code 91485 (see NCI DTP info)
PDQ Closed Trial Search ID 593641
PDQ Open Trial Search ID 593641 (check for NCI PDQ open clinical trial info)
UMLS CUI C0770893

Other Properties:
     Name Value (qualifiers indented underneath)
Chemical_Formula C4H11N5.HCl
code C29251
Contributing_Source CTRP
Contributing_Source FDA
Legacy_Concept_Name Metformin_Hydrochloride
Semantic_Type Organic Chemical
Semantic_Type Pharmacologic Substance

Additional Concept Data: 
Defined Fully by Roles: No  


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